The faculty of MJS College believes that nursing is a human caring profession that incorporates environment, nursing process, research, teaching-learning, legal/ethical/political issues, cultural diversity, professional practice, and management of care. The faculty is committed to preparing nursing students to deliver healthcare with competence, commitment, caring and integrity with a sound understanding of business practices. The philosophy of the MJS College is supported by the works of Madeline Leininger and Jean Watson.
Madeline Leininger’s Theory
Madeline Leininger states that care is the essence of nursing and the dominant, distinctive, and unifying feature of nursing. She emphasizes that human caring is a universal phenomena that varies among cultures in its expression, processes, and patterns. Care (caring) is essential to curing and healing, for there can be no curing without caring. Leininger produced the sunrise model to depict her theory of cultural care diversity and universality. The model explains that health and care are influenced by elements of the social structure such as technology, religious and philosophical factors, kinship and social systems, cultural values, political and legal factors, economic factors, and education factors. These social factors are addressed within environmental contexts, language expressions and ethno history. Each of these systems is a part of the social structure of any society: health care expressions, patterns, and practices are integral parts of these aspects of social structure (Leininger & McFarland, 2002)
Jean Watson’s Theory
Jean Watson’s theory believes that caring is central to nursing. It is the unifying force for practice. Human caring is a human process and is the moral ideal of nursing. Watson’s nursing interventions originally referred to as carative factors have now been translated into clinical caritas processes (Watson, 2006). They are:
- Formation of a humanistic-altruistic system of values
- Nurturing of faith-hope
- Cultivation of sensitivity to one’s self and others
- Developing a helping-trusting human caring relationship
- Promotion and acceptance of expression of positive and negative feeling
- Use of creative problem-solving method processes
- Promotion of transpersonal teaching and learning
- Provision for a supportive, protective, or corrective mental, physical, socio-cultural and spiritual environment
- Assistance with gratification of human needs
- Allowance for existential-phenomenological forces
From: Berman, (2008) Fundamental of Nursing: Concepts, Process, and Practice. Prentice Hall
The conceptual framework underlying the curriculum of MJSON consists of a formulation of the Faculty’s conceptualization of nursing. It is grounded and developed in a framework that can be depicted in the following phrase, “Caring in Practice using Diversity”. It incorporates theories developed by Madeleine Leininger, and Jean Watson. The curriculum is built on key concepts of human beings, caring, environment, provider/manager of care, professional practice, research health, teaching/learning, effective therapeutic communication, and cultural diversity. The development of these concepts leads to the four outcomes inherent to nursing practice. The relationship of the outcome abilities to the key concepts is shown below.
Outcome Abilities Key Concepts
Caring Human Beings
Nursing Provider/Manager of Care
Communications Effective Therapeutic Process
Critical Thinking Research
It is recognized that these designated outcome abilities and key concepts are closely inter-related. The conceptual framework is best understood through definitions of these concepts.
Humans are holistic beings whose life-course experiences are integrated into an understandable life pattern of meanings and behaviors. These life patterns influence their perceptions and interactions with their culture, society, and health care practices. Nursing influences growth and development of humans in its attainment of an optimal state of health.
Environment is the set of circumstances, conditions, and influences external to human beings that may affect the development of person’s well-being either positively or negatively. Nursing focuses on positively influencing the human-environment relationship.
Cultural diversity is a core paradigm for nursing practice. Diversity requires that the individual affirm his or her own unique self while learning to respect and address the needs of others who may have different values. Culturally diverse nursing is characterized by valuing diversity and human dignity in self and others.
Provider/Manager of Care and Professional Practice
Care is the essence of nursing and is the distinct dominant, central and unifying focus of nursing (Leininger, 1981). Nursing education professionalizes the human capacity to care through the acquisition of the knowledge and the skills needed to fulfill professional roles. Nursing practice entails the care of the sick in and across all environments and the promotion of health and well–being. The outcomes of nursing care are a result of the delivery of competent, professional, culturally congruent, compassionate, humanistic care.
Health refers to a state of well-being that is culturally defined, valued, and practiced, and reflects a continuum of well being across the life span of life. It reflects the ability of individuals or groups to function productively and participate in society’s activities in a manner that is congruent, beneficial and meaningful to their life way (Leininger, 1991). The goal of nursing is to maximize a person’s health by providing quality care for individuals and populations.
Effective Therapeutic Communication
The ability of human beings to send and receive information goes beyond verbal, nonverbal, and written communication. Communication is the meaningful interpersonal exchange of information and ideas. Information processing involves the use of technological systems to obtain the information needed to solve problems encountered in nursing practice.
The principles of the teaching-learning process are applied by the nurse to self, individuals, families, and health care members. The teaching–learning process results in a change in knowledge, attitudes, and skills, to improve human development. Mutual trust and respect between the teacher and learner is essential to the teaching–learning process.
A systematic rational process of planning and providing nursing care through, assessment, planning, diagnosis, implementation, and evaluation of client health care information. The nursing process is a method grounded in critical thinking and scientific body of knowledge. The outcomes of nursing are the delivery of competent, culturally-congruent, compassionate care.
Research in nursing establishes a theoretical and scientific base for nursing as a humanistic science. The theoretical basis for nursing is derived from the humanities and sciences. Nursing research contributes to professional practice by defining and expanding the knowledge of nursing through evidence-based practice. The professional nurse uses critical thinking skills to analyze, research, and incorporate findings into nursing practice.
The legal, ethical, and political dimensions of society contribute to the structure and function of the health care system. The legal dimension of nursing practice deals with situations in relationships and their conformity to law, while the ethical dimensions analyze conformity with accepted standards of behavior. The political aspect of nursing analyses the political impact upon the nursing profession and the healthcare system.